Total water withdrawal is > 40 % of the total surface water plus groundwater available (per year). Total water withdrawals refer to water use from the agriculture, domestic, and industrial sectors. Water stress is a
measure for chronic human induced stress, rather than drought stress
Decreasing Land Productivity
Severe or Moderate decline in land productivity. Classes 1-3 in the land productivity dynamics map (LPD). Land productivity, here calculated as the annual growing season accumulation of the above ground biomass production
is a proxy for NPP. The dynamics, observed by satellite and derived from phenological analyses of a 15-year time series (1999-2013), point to long term alterations of the health and productive capacity of the land.
Below-average biomass productivity due to drought conditions. Decline in annual plant biomass productivity (as derived from Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation –fAPAR) due to drought conditions (here, based on negative deviations from the 1901-2010 average Standardized Precipitation and Evaporation Index). Expresses the response of plant productivity to climate fluctuations.
At least one fire over the period. The number of fires observed over the period on satellite iimages with 1 km grid cells
Decline in tree cover, if observed in any 30 m2 pixel contained within each 1 km2 pixel. The change in tree cover is derived from satellite observations at 30 m resolution (per year).
Legend Socio-Economic Issues
Population density > broad land cover class median. Population density (number of people per km2) is derived from census data.
Change in population density > broad land cover class median. Reflects the dynamics of increasing number of people in a certain area.
Average income of a country's citizens > broad land cover class median. Computed based on the Gross National Income (the value of a country's annual income – domestic plus net income received from abroad) divided by size of its population
Built-up area change
Increase in built-up area > broad land cover class median. Built up is expressed as percent of pixel (1 km2) that is observed to be covered by building construction. This is derived from high resolution satellite observations, augmented by ancillary information.
Nitrogen deficit exists. Calculated based on the N balance level remained below the first quantile.
The nitrogen balance indicates the level at which the crop(s) uses the applied nitrogen according to local conditions. Values in the first quantile mean that there is less nitrogen than the crop needs. (quantiles are calculated per broad land
High input agriculture
Nitrogen surplus exists. Calculated based on the N balance level remained above the fourth quantile. The nitrogen balance indicates the level at which the crop(s) uses the applied nitrogen according to local conditions.
Values in the fourth quantile mean that there is more nitrogen than the crop needs. (quantiles are calculated per broad land class)
Irrigation occurs > 10 % of grid cell. Area equipped for irrigation, expressed as percent of total 10 × 10 km area. Obtained by combining sub-national irrigation statistics with geospatial and satellite information on the position and extend of irrigation schemes. This layer does not map the area that is actually irrigated.
Livestock density > class median. Livestock is calculated in terms of livestock ‘units’ (LSU). This allows to accumulate the various types of livestock (cattle equal 0.8 LSU, sheep 0.1, goats 0.1, pigs 0.4, chicken 0.01LSU). The layer is compiled with the 2007 FAO GLW data that is
improved with current statistics and the use of higher resolution predictor variables. The density of livestock is related to environmental pressures from livestock related land use change, grazing lands and
fodder production, and greenhouse gas emissions. Within the broad land classes an additional subdivision between dryland and non-dryland was introduced for calculating the GCI thresholds.